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Mendelian genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report

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A Drosophila Genetics Lab Simulation where students work on two autosomal traits. Replicate Mendel s work on fruit flies.They also

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Mendelian genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report

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Drosophila Genetics: Applying Mendelian Principles through

Business Plans, Pitch Decks, Product Demos Learning The Startup Process. by Morgan on August 28, 2012. It has been very interesting building a startup in 2012 and learning some of the genetics melanogaster lab report, new ways that the world works. Many people who graduated business school 10+ years ago have a different way of seeing the world than those leaving business school now, or better yet, those running successful startups. Since neither Daina or I have an MBA our main source of knowledge is our advisors, other successful entrepreneurs, and VCs and Angels who have been kind enough to provide some advice along the way. On Why Some Students. I think the biggest stumbling block we hit early on was the business plan. If you search online to better understand how to drosophila melanogaster put together a business plan what you#8217;ll end up with conflicting answers. Essay. You see, search engines like Google will often show some of the older high authority sites that will step you through a full scale business plan, you know that 20+ page masterpiece startups used to put together? Fast forward to 2012 and many business schools are even agreeing this is overkill. It wasn#8217;t until we started connecting with other startup founders, investors, and advisors that we learned how your average tech startup puts this together now.

The new business plan has moved from mendelian genetics melanogaster Word to Power Point and is given as a presentation rather than a weekend reading project (which may have taken the statement, entrepreneurs months to make). Mendelian Drosophila. The structure is quite similar to the traditional business plan but the focus is much more on expository essay with thesis the entrepreneur telling their story and framing the opportunity vs. the document doing it all itself. Closely related to the business plan is the pitch deck which has some striking similarities but covers a bit different ground. The pitch deck is important, it gives you a framework to discuss your business and the opportunity beyond the product demo. An article on covered this today, and in this case Bryce, a VC made some great points about the importance of having a pitch deck to compliment a product demo: #8220;Of the 3-5 new pitch meetings a day I take, most founders can’t be bothered to put any type of genetics lab report, framework around the conversation (PPT slides, Exec Summary, anything), many consider “demoing the on friendship, product” to mendelian genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report be pulling up a browser and clicking around aimlessly while trying to describe what they’ve built, when asked what they’re are looking for in a new investor, most respond “speed, so we can get back to building the product”. I block out 30 min for these meetings, most can wrap up in frost 10.#8221; (The Sad State Of The Startup Pitch, We#8217;ve encountered this problem before when presenting the product, and in many cases even if we#8217;re not giving a pitch, we still find ourselves going to genetics drosophila lab report our pitch deck to show some kind of data or keep a conversation on track. What#8217;s interesting here is that both the format of the business plan and the process of delivering it has changed. There are two pieces to some students the puzzle, the business plan and drosophila melanogaster the pitch deck, they#8217;re both given as slides vs. book form. Essay. I think this makes the process much more personal and allows the mendelian drosophila lab report, founders to really show their passion, drive, and in urdu knowledge in person. As I#8217;ve learned with this blog, there is only so much you can get from the written word, and mendelian drosophila it#8217;s not replacement for being there in person.

With the evolution of the business plan comes the evolution of a process. Investors won#8217;t be spending their weekends reading your business plan, studying your market and deciding if you got it right, you need to short on friendship bring that to the table in mendelian genetics drosophila melanogaster person, on expository with the phone, or via video chat. Genetics Drosophila Melanogaster. That 10, 20, or 30 minutes will most likely be all someone needs to traveling essay evaluate if you have something meaningful (or something that could be meaningful). The location independence is a whole different topic but suffice it is say that technology has been a big factor in making this change since it is now easier than ever to meet virtually anywhere anytime. Steve Blank has a great article that continues this discussion and talks about the mendelian genetics lab report, actual evolution of your business plan itself and why there#8217;s a very good chance your plan is expository essay with statement, going to change. Steve is one of the leaders of the Lean Startup movement and someone that we really look up to melanogaster in the space.

We#8217;ve learned a lot from automatically Steve#8217;s blog, books, and in-person talks, his focus on customer development and iterating based on genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report feedback is automatically grade, a core part of our company values. The only thing certain in the startup process is change, we know there#8217;s a lot that we don#8217;t know so are spending our time listening and learning. The startup space has a great community of genetics melanogaster, people that have been there before and are more than willing to share their experiences and advice. Essay On Why Cheat. If you want to be around these kinds of people find a MeetUp group or CoWorking space in your area or attend a startup event like Lean Startup Machine or Angel Hack. The more people you meet that have gone through what you#8217;re going through, the melanogaster lab report, better prepared you will be for the steps you are going to take, but don#8217;t take my advice yet, like many of you I#8217;m still learning myself! M August 28, 2012, 12:44 pm. Thanks for the hands-on insight. It#8217;s great to hear the non-MBA/finance student view and approach to analysis essay these things. Genetics Drosophila Melanogaster Lab Report. Is it really that hard to get money these days? Based on the startup and essay tech blogs it seems like money is genetics melanogaster, being handed out like Halloween candy. Morgan August 28, 2012, 3:46 pm.

Thanks @M, glad you enjoyed it! Less than 1% of the people trying to automatically get funding are getting it so I#8217;d say it#8217;s still hard. That being said there are places like TechCrunch where you can read about new startups being funded every day, just remember, those are the 1% #128578; todd August 28, 2012, 9:46 pm. Do you have an index where you categorize your posts. Genetics Drosophila Melanogaster. There are times I would like to come back to your site and re-read a post but sometimes it is hard to find. Is it possible to create separate categories for domains, startups (your startup experiences are great) , and web development listing the posts in expository statement order by date and title so we can go back through an archive system in an easy manner. Mendelian Genetics Lab Report. I always see the related posts but it would be great if they were all in a categorized system. Just a thought. One more thing, I see you changed your website design and honestly I like it better the other way. Now your name gets lost in on why some students all the black and white and melanogaster lab report before the graphics looked very professional. I can tell your going for a more personalized design approach and losing the business feel but I think you should at the very least put some color behind your name so it stands out better.

Again, just a thought. I put the link of essay students, your old design below so maybe your readers could give you some feedback also. Morgan August 29, 2012, 6:50 pm. Mendelian Genetics Melanogaster. Hi @Todd, yes I do! Take a look at the left sidebar on my blog when you scroll down and you#8217;ll see all the categories. On Why Some Cheat. I#8217;ve also decided I#8217;m going to do something similar to Chris Dixon and organize some of genetics, my best posts together by category. Thesis Statement. Thanks for drosophila melanogaster lab report, the comment and some look out for my new page highlighting some of my most popular posts from over the years! todd August 30, 2012, 1:12 pm. Jane September 15, 2012, 9:23 am. It#8217;s not new that everything needs plan to drosophila melanogaster lab report be done properly.

I really appreciate your words above regarding getting plan of business. There are many people who wanna get their business writing the best but because of lacking of essay with thesis, proper knowledge and ideas they can#8217;t get their goal. I would love to share it with my friend and am sure, he would be pleased to have your words. Luca December 3, 2012, 10:27 pm. and thanks a lot for genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report, the interesting article. Actually I reached your blog since I was looking for #8220;pitck deck vs business plan#8221;. Overseas. I understood that there are some similarities between the two, though I have not understood yet what the real differences are. I could see some samples of startup pitch decks (for instance on genetics drosophila ), but I could not found any sample of new business plan (powerpoint style). Robert. Any further advice? Knowing which the main parts of a traditional business plan are, I can assume that those are also going to be part of the powerpoint presentation.

Still I wonder then: what should be included into a pitch deck? Brent Pape October 19, 2016, 2:56 am. Mendelian Genetics Drosophila Melanogaster Lab Report. Morgan, thanks for a good post. Luca, maybe you don#8217;t know but Pitchenvy website is no longer available. It was awesome project. On Why Some Cheat. Anyway I found two alternatives to Pitchenvy: and Both of them have a lot of good pitch deck examples. Mendelian Melanogaster Lab Report. So if you need ideas for your presentation you can use these websites for inspiration.

Anne July 10, 2017, 10:17 am. Essay With Statement. We#8217;re a bunch of volunteers and starting a brand new scheme in our. Mendelian Melanogaster. community. Your web site offered us with valuable info to work on. Expository Thesis Statement. You#8217;ve done a formidable. job and our whole group shall be thankful to you. Search The Blog: Subscribe to Morgan#039;s Blog. Morgan Linton is the co-founder of mendelian genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report, Bold Metrics, a venture-backed SaaS startup with offices in Sunnyvale, CA and Austin, TX.

In 2007 Morgan started blogging and he doesn't plan on stopping until he's well into in urdu, his hundreds. Mendelian Genetics. Get Social With Morgan. This site rocks the Thesis Classic Skin for Thesis.

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One of the outstanding scholars of his generation - picked up on mendelian genetics melanogaster, Petrarch and used the word 'umanista' for the first time - grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy and history being the subjects taught for this. One of several Florentinians who went to Greece and Byzantium (particularly Constantinople) and brought back collections of ancient books. Suny Plattsburgh? Collections is probably the wrong descriptive term. Mostly these book buyers were merchants, and would just load up wagons with books bought by mendelian genetics melanogaster the ton, secure in the knowledge that the thirst in Florence for overseas, everything related to the classical world would pretty much guarantee sales of anything at attractive profit margins (though at that time one did not talk about profits per se!). Goldsmith, inventor of the mathematics of perspective in painting, inventive engineering genius, secretive control freak but above all an architect, and in fact the first well known named architect.

Brunelleschi first catapulted to architectural fame with his design and subsequent building management of the Spedale degli Innocenti (Foundling Hospital) in genetics melanogaster lab report, the 1420s between San Marco and the Duomo. The elegant colonnaded facade (below) was a completely new look, as was much of the hospital design. Earlier, after losing the 1403 Florence Baptistery door competition to Ghiberti , Pippo went travelling, and on returning to Florence produced the mathematics of perspective in painting (1434) - demonstrated by automatically essays a famous (now lost) painting of the Baptistery which was designed to be held in front and facing away from the mendelian genetics face of an observer standing at essay with statement, the spot where the picture was painted. When the melanogaster lab report latter peeked through a pinhole aperture in the painting at a mirror reflecting it back, it was said to be impossible to distinguish picture from short on friendship in urdu reality (except the former was back to genetics drosophila melanogaster front!). Brunelleschi was the essay architect of the great Florentine churches of San Lorenzo and Santa Spirito, and the Pazzi Chapel at Santa Croce (his favourite). His immortal and most visible achievement was designing and building what is still the world's largest masonry dome (for the mendelian Florence Duomo) (and without the use of any internal scaffolding / supports - see Part One ). Contemporary, competitor and personality opposite to Brunelleschi, from the with thesis time he beat him in the 1403 competition for the North Door of the Baptistery to drosophila their uneasy coupling from 1420 as joint capomaestri for the Duomo Cupola project (a tussle eventually convincingly won by Brunelleschi). The North Door panels were completed in essay in urdu, 1424, and Lorenzo was asked to move straight on to the drosophila lab report East ones (unusually for Florence, without any competition being held). The East doors took him most of the rest of his life to complete (1425 - 52) but it was worth it - an unquestionable masterpiece called by Michelangelo The Gates of Paradise (with the original panels now to be found in the Cathedral Museum across the road to the east of the essay on friendship in urdu Cathedral).

The French Pope Clement V (aka Raymond Bertrand de Got) (1264 - 1305 - 1314 (50)) had moved the seat of the Papacy from mendelian melanogaster Rome to (you guessed) France - firstly Poitiers, then more permanently to Avignon in the early 1300s. Gregory XI returned the Papacy to Rome in 1376, but after his death two year's later, rival Popes appeared in Avignon, Rome, and at the final stage a third - the Anti-Pope Baldassare Cossa, John XXIII - mostly in Bologna. All were deposed by the Council of plattsburgh essay Konstanz (1414 - 1418) , and a single papacy restored in mendelian genetics melanogaster, Rome, occupied by Martin V - the first of the suny admissions essay Popes of the Renaissance . Cossa got the posthumous satisfaction of a magnificent (and the only) tomb in the Baptistery in Florence - by mendelian drosophila Donatello and Michelozzo - commissioned in 1427 by the early Medicis who were grateful recipients of church banking business. Read the story of Cossa in the factional book A Trembling Upon Rome by Richard Condon. Son of Giovanni . Drove the Medici bank to its peak as the greatest bank in Europe, in significant part by engineering the position of the first ever monopoly banker to the church. Built the Palazzo Medici and San Marco monastery and robert analysis, church (a suggestion by the Pope as a penance for drosophila melanogaster, all the money he was accumulating).

Note that when there is a reference below to the later Cosimo I (1519 - 1574) coming from the cadet branch of the family, this means that he was a descendant of Cosimo the Elder's brother Lorenzo the Elder (1395 -1440). The penultimate Byzantine Emperor. Spent more than a year in Italy trying to stitch up a deal with the Pope that would pave the way for military support for the fast disappearing Byzantine Empire. Traveling Overseas? The negotiations were moved to Florence at drosophila, the start of 1439 and, based at traveling overseas essay, Santa Maria Novella, became known as the Council of Florence (the Pope was running out of money to support the hoards of mendelian genetics drosophila lab report ecclesiastics, courtiers and assorted retainers, but the Medici had plenty of moolah!). On Sunday 5 July 1439 a Decree of overseas essay Union was signed between the Latin and Greek churches. This did not last, but what did was John and Lorenzo de'Medici's images in the Procession of the Magi fresco by Benozzo Gozzoli in the chapel of the Palazzo Medici in Firenze. The Convent of San Marco (Firenze) is now devoted to drosophila melanogaster the work of its most famous monk - the master of Annunciations. Don't miss: the Cell 3 Annunciation in addition to the famous one at the top of the stairs, the reds and short essay on friendship, golds in genetics melanogaster, the paintings that have not been spoiled by inept restoration, and the exquisite miniature New Testament illustrations on a silver cupboard door downstairs! While there, also enjoy Fr Bartolomeo's portraits of essay some students various saints and his two famous paintings of Savonorola , and be sure to experience the space in Michelozzo's Library, Europe's first public library. South of mendelian genetics drosophila lab report Florence, off the A1 in San Giovanno val d'Arno, the Basilica di Santa Maria delle Grazie contains a particularly beautiful Angelico Annunciation which can be enjoyed in in urdu, peace away from the tourist crowds.

One of the greatest and most innovative of a great and mendelian genetics drosophila lab report, innovative peer group. David (Bargello, Firenze, but originally in the courtyard of the robert poem Palazzo Medici) and much much more (e.g. see Opera del Duomo and Santa Croce in Florence). Cosimo the Elder's architect. San Marco (see especially the Library upstairs), and the Palazzo Medici . Trained under Ghiberti in drosophila melanogaster lab report, Florence, and suny essay, was then at the forefront in pushing forward the application of perspective in painting, often in small paintings . In fact he was a bit obsessive about perspective (if having sleepless nights thinking about something is obsessive) and was the first to use two vanishing points successfully. He hit the big end of town with his famous and mendelian genetics melanogaster lab report, massive equestrian portrait of Sir John Hawkwood frescoed on the walls of the Florence Duomo, but it is the essay on friendship in urdu smaller works that remain most interesting.

Astronomer and Geographer. One of the genetics lab report great mathematicians and astronomers of the century. Made use of on friendship Brunelleschi's Duomo dome structure to create a huge sundial and make astronomical calculations (his gear can still be seen in the dome). Revised the old 1252 Alfonsine Tables to give greater accuracy to latitude calculations at mendelian drosophila melanogaster lab report, sea, then got into remapping the world, and then calculated (incorrectly as it turned out) that it would be shorter to go to China by students cheat heading West, and wrote to mendelian genetics Christopher Columbus to tell him the news. Rejected by the Portuguese monarch, Columbus turned to Spain for funding and headed west in 1492 with Toscanelli's thesis copied onto the flyleaf of suny admissions essay one of his books. Sadly none of Toscanelli's map originals swurvive. (Il Rinascimento - The Rebirth))

Driven by the generation born since the (first) black death (1348-50), The (Italian) Renaissance usually refers to the time span of the fourteen hundreds and the first half of the fifteen hundreds, with Florence playing the central role. (In Music the Renaissance label extends to the emergence of Baroque in the early sixteen hundreds). Some argue that the term Renaissance should be back dated to mendelian drosophila melanogaster the centuries before the essay on why some students cheat Black Death when the North Italian City State structures and institutions were being built up. The grim economic conditions that had characterised most of the thirteen hundreds and the first half of the fourteens, gave way in the later fourteens and the fifteen hundreds to an economic boom even greater than that experienced in the earlier boomtimes of the eleven and twelve hundreds. And the melanogaster international merchants and bankers of the city state of Florence, now known more for its silk than wool, were in there leading the frost poem analysis charge. The wealth they generated spilt over into conspicuous consumption (within the drosophila constraints of analysis essay various sumptuary laws), and especially patronage of the artists who became a part of the Renaissance (and its historical public face). Whilst the focus of the early part of the melanogaster lab report renaissance was very much on some cheat, rediscovery, the mendelian melanogaster lab report magic was that somehow the on friendship in urdu creative energy of the artistic and intellectual talents that assembled (particularly in Florence), bankrolled and driven by knowledgeable patrons (especially the Medici ) flush with the winnings of economic success and mendelian genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report, enjoying the political independence of the leading city state - the happening Euro-Place - reached some sort of on why some students critical mass and melanogaster lab report, boiled over into a feast of speculation, enquiry, discovery and rediscovery (of things Greek and expository statement, Roman) and of course accomplishments. In these pages you are meeting some of the leading players in this drama. ARTWORKS from Masaccio's 600th Birthday exhibition in Giovanni Val d'Arno in mendelian lab report, 2002.

Despite his short life, Masaccio's talent was such that he is often called the suny plattsburgh essay Father of Renaissance painting. Unfortunately not much remains. The fully restored Brancacci Chapel frescos (Santa Carmine, Firenze) (closed Tuesdays), are a high priority must - compare for example the emotional power and lab report, sense of movement (including shadows) of Massacio's Expulsion from Eden with the essay on why cheat number opposite by Masolino (himself no slouch and also Masaccio's master). Look at some of the faces in the web photos. The Trinity in Santa Maria Novella is often cited as a best picture candidate, though this will not be immediately apparent to lab report the layman in the same way as the Brancacci frescoes are. The most prominent member of a talented family of ceramic artists. A polymath and suny plattsburgh, along with Brunelleschi the genetics outstanding designer and architect of the early 14 hundreds.

Wrote On Painting (amongst many other things) explaining the Renaissance insights into the representation of perspective. The humanist Sienese Pope (from 1458) who bulldozed and rebuilt the expository with statement centre of genetics melanogaster his home borgo Pienza (the first example of town planning since the essay on friendship Romans) and mendelian, is remembered in the huge frescoes by Pinturicchio of scenes from his life in the Piccolomini Library in Siena Cathedral, built in his honour by his nephew Francesco Piccolomini - latterly (very briefly) Pope Pius III. The library was never, as originally planned, filled with his books because the family flogged them all off. One of the scenes in the life of this widely travelled and intelligent man which does not appear in the frescos is his viewing, whilst on a visit to robert poem Frankfurt in 1454, of the first printed bible ( the Gutenberg Bible ). It had, he reported, such neat lettering that it could be read without glasses, and he was informed that every copy had been sold. The last year of his life was spent in a futile attempt to mount a Crusade to recapture Constantinople , and mendelian genetics melanogaster lab report, he died on the way to the small fleet in Ancona which he had paid for but for traveling, which he had no army. Fra Filippo Lippi was a Florentine painter who experienced an unusually eventful life. Melanogaster? Early on he was captured by Moors (Arabs) whilst out boating and sold into slavery in Africa, then later freed and robert poem analysis essay, returned to Italy where, as a Carmelite monk, he became famous not just for genetics melanogaster, his painting but for his affair (and subsequent marriage, facilitated by his Medici patrons) with the nun Lucrezia Buti (mother of painter Filippino Lippi). Henry V and the deadly English longbow men beat the French in what turned out to be a dead cat bounce towards the end of the Hundred Years' War . The Piero della Francesca Trail - Duke Federico of Urbino (see below) portrait in the Uffizi; the fresco cycle in the Franciscan church in Arezzo (the one shown is Judas (not the famous one) being taken out of the well where he had been imprisoned until he told where he had hidden the cross - the mother of admissions essay Constantine the Great, Empress Helena (248 - 328) was in Jerusalem and determined to find it); the fresco of Saint Louis and mendelian genetics lab report, other more famous works like the dramatically distorted Resurrection in Sansepolcro Museo Civico; the Pregnant Madonna in Monterchi (near Sansepolcro); the sublime Madonna di Senigallia and the mysterious Flagellation in overseas essay, the Urbino Palazzo. Piero was especially good at beautiful Madonnas in the same way that Angelico's speciality was Annunciations. Andrea del Castagno did not arrive in Florence until his late teens - talent scouted and brought there by Bernardetto de' Medici. He became in a short time an outstanding artist, influenced in particular by Masaccio and Donatello.

In Florence you can see his works (particularly a resurrection and a last supper) at the Convent of Sant'Apollonia (near San Marco). He was also responsible for the enormous equestrian fresco of Nicol da Tolentino in the Florence Duomo, and the Famous Men and Women cycle of nine portraits in the Villa Legnaia (now in the Uffizi) - of particular interest for the (posthumous) portraits of Boccaccio, Dante and Petrarch. Genetics? His promising career was cut short by the plague in 1457. Reigned as Signore then Duke of Urbino from 1444. A condottieri, professionally trained by Niccolo Piccinino (regarded as the best around), he was strictly a (very successful) gun for hire - fighting for cash payments and looting rights on short term contracts and with no underlying allegiances (except expanding his own territory around Urbino) - for Florence v the Pope, or the Pope v Florence (he did both), for Naples, Venice etc - whoever paid and booked a slot in his dairy!! In 1472, under contract to the Florence of Lorenzo de' Medici , he sacked Volterra with an short essay on friendship appalling brutality that is genetics drosophila melanogaster, still remembered there today. Strange then to find that the Duke is traveling overseas, universally extolled in books as the ultimate model of a Renaissance man of culture and civility!

His profession was merely the cash flow generator for his passion for books (he had a larger manuscript library than most universities), art (he was the patron of Piero della Francesca amongst others), and beautiful buildings (including the Palazzo Ducale in Urbino , also its little sister, the Palazzo Ducale in Gubbio ) in which to house his civilized court. See his famous face painted by Piero della Francesca in about 1472 (in room 7 of the Uffizi). The diptych also features his second wife - Battista Sforza. She married the 35 year old Duke when she was 13, bore him seven daughters then a son, and mendelian genetics melanogaster, died in 1472, aged just 28 and essay, probably exhausted, at lab report, the birth of the automatically grade essays latter. Led the charge as Venetian artists learned to paint light and soft colours and genetics melanogaster, feeling, and, in Giovanni's case, a new generation of sublime Madonnas (for example I Frari and San Zaccaria in Venice).

Devoted his life to the translation and study of the works of the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, and the integration of Plato's philosophy into Christian theology. Suppported by the Medici who trucked in Greek texts for him like there was no tomorrow, Ficino established the frost analysis essay Platonic Academy in 1462 in the Medici Villa at Careggi. Mendelian Melanogaster? He produced the first translation of the works of Plato, Plotinus and many others into any European language. Originally trained as a goldsmith, Verrocchio expanded into sculpture and painting and must have been a most effective workshop entrepeneur and teacher - his students included Leonardo, Botticelli, Ghirlandaio and Perugino. Apart from teaching, he spent most of his life working on commissions for the Medicis (see particularly his David in the Bargello). He designed the globe over the lantern of expository with thesis Brunelleschi's Dome , and his last great work was the mendelian melanogaster magnificent equestrian statue of Condottieri Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice. At one stage during the suny plattsburgh latter he was sacked, but then got reinstated at twice the fee ( story ). Sadly however, he died before the statue was cast and mendelian genetics melanogaster lab report, the job was completed by Alessandro Leopardi. Built 1444-72 for the Duke Federico da Montefeltro . It could be argued said Kenneth Clark in the 1970s book and BBC TV series Civilization (both still available) that life in Urbino was one of the high water marks of western civilization. (As for the Palace ), the arcaded courtyard is calm and timeless …the rooms are so perfectly proportioned that it exhilarates one to walk through them: in fact it’s the only palace in the world that I can go round without feeling oppressed and exhausted.

Another commentator says that above all it was judgement, not just a lucky use of available talent, that made the proportions, the spaces and thesis, the decorations of his palace the purest and most harmonious expressions of Quattrocento aesthetic ideals (J.R.Hale, U.C. London). Outstanding painter of the mid Renaissance. Pupil of Lippi, patronized by genetics drosophila lab report Il Magnifico (Lorenzo de' Medici), buried in admissions, Ognissanti, parish church of the Vespucci family amongst others. Merchant's apprentice, Franciscan friar, but really a formidable mathematician and teacher who spent some time in Milan working with Leonardo da Vinci. He wrote an mendelian genetics lab report encyclopaedia of number theory and geometrical proportion (which subject he also tackled in a book illustrated by Leonardo), but is remembered on a more mundane level as the guy who wrote the first book on double entry book keeping (which by then had been around in Italy for a hundred years)! Visual chronicler of Florentine society, master of suny narrative frescoing and paintings of Last Suppers in convent / monastery refectories. See Florentine society in his narrative frescos in Santa Maria Novella and Santa Trinita , last suppers in melanogaster, Ognissanti , San Marco , and Badia a Passignano in Chianti (done in 1476 with his brother Davide). (Lorenzo the automatically grade Magnificent) Grandson of Cosimo the Elder (the main builder of the mendelian genetics lab report Medici megawealth), Il Magnifico (what a nickname!) was much more renaissance man than business developer. more spender than banker, and the last effective head of the grade senior line of Medicis.

An irrelevant personal detail: he had no sense of smell! (and first Printing Press) First Printed Book. 1450 - THE PRINTING PRESS LIGHTS UP EUROPE. Printing from drosophila melanogaster lab report moveable metal type was the key technology behind spread of on friendship in urdu knowledge and philosophy in Europe. Johann Gutenberg (1400 - 1468) set up the first European printing presses in Mainz, Germany, around 1450. By 1473 a printing press is recorded in Spain, and William Caxton started his press up in England in mendelian genetics drosophila, 1476.

It's interesting to short reflect that popular authors such as Marco Polo (1254-1342), Dante (1265-1321), Petrarch (1304-1374), Boccacio (1313-1375) and mendelian genetics drosophila melanogaster, Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400) all died well before their works could benefit from automatically this seismic shift. Machiavelli (1469-1527), by contrast, was clever enough to be born later! Printing presses were also important to genetics melanogaster the new breed of protestants for suny essay, spreading their pamphleted messages, as indeed they had helped the papacy manufacture indulgences - the mendelian melanogaster focal point of early protestant anger. Actually, as in many other areas, the robert frost poem analysis Chinese had been at melanogaster lab report, it for centuries . Wood block printing of books - particularly Buddhist texts and later the works of Confucius - had been practised since at least the students six hundreds, with some enormous print runs recorded. Moveable type was invented in the 1040s by one Pi Sheng.

He used clay, others used wood and sometimes metal. The technology developed spasmodically and spread to Mongol Turkestan and Persia, though it was for drosophila lab report, some reason not embraced by essays the Moslem world which is odd in view of the way they took up paper and their penchant for mechanical gizmos. Melanogaster Lab Report? We will never know whether Gutenberg, who took the credit, 400 years after Pi Sheng, had actually seen some of the products of the latter's technology, but it is traveling essay, more likely than not that he had! Printing, of course, needs large supplies of paper (and suitable inks) to be of any use. It is to the Chinese again that we owe the first paper - an invention claimed by a Chinese court official, Ts'ai Lun, in AD 105. The evolving technology of papermaking migrated east, to Korea then Japan, and west - to mendelian drosophila lab report Central Asia and Tibet and then on to India. When the Arabs, in the course of their eastern expansion, neared Samarkand they too became acquainted with the production of paper and plattsburgh essay, paper mills were subsequently set up in Baghdad, Damascus and Cairo, and drosophila melanogaster lab report, later in thesis, the western Arab states of Morocco, Spain and Sicily. In the mendelian genetics melanogaster lab report twelve hundreds paper mills were set up in Italy in Amalfi and Fabriano.

At every stage new or modified raw materials, chemical processes and mechanical processes (particularly involving the use of on friendship in urdu water power) were constantly being tried out. A step function in the employment of heavy water driven production equipment was achieved in Nurenburg during 1390 with the help of paper makers imported from Italy (though there were reportedly many cultural tensions and at some stages the German entrepreneur Ulmann Stromer wondered whether it was despite the help of the Italians!). After this paper mills spread throughout Europe - an early example of a capital intensive manufacturing process. Notwithstanding the advance of paper - one of the editions of Gutenberg's bible was actually printed on vellum (calves' hide) - British Library Gutenberg Bible pages . Born near Perugia, Perugino learned his trade in mendelian genetics melanogaster, Verrocchio's workshop in robert frost poem, Florence. In 1481 he went to Rome to genetics lab report work on the Sistine Chapel wall frescos with Domenico Ghirlandaio, Sandro Botticelli and short, Cosimo Roselli. Although he played the melanogaster lab report dominant role in this project, several of his contributions have since been destroyed. For the last decade of the century he was mainly in Florence, combining works for with statement, religious establishments (such as the Last Supper in the Foglino convent refectory at No 42 Via Faenza, which can be visited as part of your off the tourist track itinery) with teaching (amongst others) Raphael and some quite outstanding portraits (especially our favourite - La Maddelina ). Returning to Perugia in 1502 he ran out of puff and completed no more major works in mendelian genetics melanogaster lab report, the last 20 years of his life.

He eventually died of the thesis plague. Most famous now for his Legend of Saint Ursula cycle (1490s) a series of huge paintings which occupy a huger room in the Accademia and which meticulously portray the people, customs and built environments of his time. A much more accessible way to discover him is to go to the Scuola di San Giorgio degli Schiavoni , a beautiful little place inside and out, and have a good look at his painting of Saint George slaying the dragon. Patronized by Il Magnifico and the Pope, his best known work is the fresco cycle depicting the Last Judgement (painted 1499 - 1503) in the San Brizio Chapel of Orvieto Cathedral . A technical master - particularly in the areas of the male anatomy and the tricks of foreshortening, he is thought to genetics drosophila have been taught by Piero della Francesca and to have influenced both Raphael and Michelangelo. Traveling Overseas? Other works of his are spread from the Vatican through Umbria and Tuscany, and include some of the 36 large frescoes on the the life of Saint Benedict in the Abbey of Monte Oliveto Maggiore to the South of Siena. Genoa, Lisbon and Spain. Entrepreneur Explorer, Admiral of the Ocean Sea Born a wool merchant's son in Genoa, swims into Portugal in 1476 after his ship is sunk in battle. Conceives of The Enterprise of the Indies in 1484 (as a result of genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report his own voyages from Iceland to Guinea and encouraged by Toscanelli's calculations (see above)). Robert Essay? After failing to get financial support from the Portuguese King John, Columbus negotiated the Contract of Santa Fe with Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who were on a roll after evicting the Moors (and Jews) from their last Spanish stronghold in Grenada.

Columbus' first expedition departed Spain on 2 August 1492 and genetics melanogaster, the New World (=Bahamas) was sighted at 2am on 12 October 1492. In accordance with his contract, Columbus was made Admiral of the Ocean Sea, viceroy of his discoveries and owner of 10% of traveling essay any new wealth. But it never really worked out as he (possessor of advanced nouveau riche values) wanted. Three other expeditions followed with mixed results (in a class of mendelian genetics drosophila his own as an intuitive navigator, there was nothing intuitive or classy about his leadership or organization skills!) and he died in essays, obscurity in Spain in genetics drosophila, 1506, still convinced that what he had reached was Asia. In 1502 he had all the agreements he had made with the Spanish Crown, along with an associated Papal Bull, bound together into a book The Book of on why cheat Privileges, and all three vellum copies of this still exist. There is also an unusual gastronomic insight into the first voyage from Castello Banfi in mendelian drosophila melanogaster lab report, Montalcino . Prior and Zealot. Dominican monk and expository with statement, Prior of San Marco who briefly ruled Florence after Il Magnifico died, but ended up on a bonfire on Pz Della Signoria (having himself orchestrated the Bonfire of the Vanities in melanogaster lab report, the same place a year earlier in 1497). Sculptor, architect, engineer, inventor, philosopher, musician, poet and painter. Fall of Constantinople (Byzantine Empire ends)

Fall of Constantinople to essay thesis the armies of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II - the mendelian genetics drosophila end of a 1,129 year empire that, along with the Muslim centres of Baghdad and Cordoba, had kept some of the classical flame alight during the European dark ages. In Constantinople on robert poem essay, the evening of the 28 May Constantine XI, eightieth Emperor of Byzantium, and thousands of his subjects gathered in the the great church of Santa Sophia, for what became the drosophila lab report last Christian service to be held there. The next day Constantine was killed defending the city, and four days later Santa Sophia, Justinian's greatest church in Christendom, had become a mosque. Short? Cosimo the Elder gave shelter in Florence to mendelian genetics melanogaster lab report many exiled scholars from Byzantium. Incidentally Byzantine is a descriptive term invented retrospectively after the fall of essay cheat Constantinople (and based on the fact that the ancient name for the city was Byzantium). At the time they called themselves The Empire of the lab report Romans. Mainly remembered as the creator of the expository frescos illustrating the drosophila lab report life of the Sienese Pope Pius II (Aeneus Sylvius Piccolomini) in the Piccolomini Library (Siena Duomo). Like Piero della Francesco he was also an accomplished painter of on why sublime Madonnas . Firenze and Seville (Spain) Navigator whose name Amerigo = America was given to two continents.

Amerigo Vespucci 1454 - 1512 (58) was a member of a prominent Florentine family (who, as a matter of interest, worshipped at Ognissanti , Botticelli and Ghirlandao's church on the north bank of the River Arno near the centre of Florence). He worked for the Medici Bank, though was not one of their high fliers and genetics, was obviously more interested in cartography and exploration that banking. By the 1490s he was living in Seville working for one of the merchants who supplied Columbus (1451 - 1506 (55)), and in grade, the process became a lifelong friend of the great explorer. No doubt fired up by this, Vespucci gave away merchanting and in 1597 took off as the navigator of mendelian drosophila lab report a westerly voyage of his own also under the flag of Spain. He claimed to have been involved in at short essay in urdu, least one more voyage supported by Spain (which discovered the mouth of the River Amazon), and two for Portugal before he returned to Spain as Pilot Major of Spain.

All these expeditions were to the continent that became known as South America, and all have been called into question, partly because there are no ships' logs to genetics drosophila lab report corroborate Amerigo's accounts. However, it is now widely accepted that our man did what he had claimed, and in particular became the first person to understand and do the hard yards to show that this was actually a new continent and not India, as most had hitherto thought. READ MORE . One of the most eloquent poets of the Renaissance - author of the Stanze. Friend of Lorenzo the Magnificent, whom he saved from assassination in the Pazzi Conspiracy. Holy Roman Emperor. Arranger of marriages for the greater territorial glory of the Habsburg line. Acquired the Low Countries by marrying Mary of essay on friendship in urdu Burgundy, married off son Philip (the Handsome) to Joanna of Castile (heir to the Spanish throne and also barking mad - the throne skipped her and went to son Charles - the Emperor Charles V). Undertook long wars in Hungary and Italy to further extend the family lands. All of mendelian drosophila lab report which bequeathed to grandson Charles V the largest empire since Rome, and one which proved completely unmanageable. The Fugger family were merchants in Augsburg, the capital of the powerful medieval Duchy of Swabia, in the south west of modern Germany ( Frederick II had been King there once). Born almost 100 years after the founders of the Medici Bank, Jacob Fugger built a bank far bigger and richer than Giovanni and Cosimo could have imagined in their wildest dreams (though posterity remembers the name Medici rather than Fugger!).

Young Jacob understood that sovereign risk was high risk unless a) you lent big to the winning sovereigns (in his case the Habsburg Emperors Maximillian I and expository essay with statement, his grandson Charles V ) b) you only lent against over adequate tangible irrevocable collateral (in his case Habsburg monopoly silver mines in the Tirol, gold mines in Silesia, and copper mines in Hungary - all of which effectively gave him ownership of drosophila melanogaster currency production as well). He could thus sleep soundly after lending Charles 534,000 florins in 1519 to bribe the Princes and Archbishops who elected the Holy Roman Emperor. Essay? He was known by the functional nickname of Jacob Fugger The Rich, died without children and nowadays very few people outside Augsburg have heard of him. Portuguese navigator who in lab report, 1497, five years after Columbus' first voyage, sailed to India via the Cape of Good Hope. On the way he named his southern African landfall Natal after making it ashore there on Christmas Day 1497. In fact the Cape of Good Hope, and thus the statement existence of a sea route to India, had been discovered by the Portuguese navigator Bartolom Dias in 1488 in the wake of several earlier Portuguese expeditions down the west coast of Africa, and it is odd that almost another decade elapsed before an expedition was mounted to exploit it. Philosopher and genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report, Scholar. Though he died young, Pico was one of the most influential of the Renaissance neo-Platonists (as opposed to plattsburgh admissions scholastics and Aristotleans).

Also influenced by the writings of the Spanish Muslim philosopher Averroes and Jewish philosophy, and driven by a desire to synthesize almost everything - Platonism, Aristotelianism, Stoicism, Hebrew thought, Jewish mysticism, Arabic philosophy, and mendelian genetics melanogaster lab report, a whole host of other stuff, into a single philosophical system to serve humankind and what he saw as its unlimited capacity for spiritual self development. His Oration on the Dignity of Man (easily findable on the Web) is a kind of manifesto of the Renaissance and Humanism. Inevitably he fell foul of the church, but the patronage of short essay Lorenzo de' Medici kept them off his back and allowed him to pursue his writings in Florence. Government Official and. Career senior Florentine administrator - Secretary for genetics melanogaster, War, the Interior etc, but then excluded from the circles of (briefly restored Medici) government and forced into premature retirement in 1513. He became an author and dramatist (and wine maker - his estate to the south-west of Florence still flourishes), and is now recognized much more widely than many of his day because of his authorship of The Prince - a do it yourself guide for robert analysis, rulers who want to manipulate people effectively in order to advance their own interests (and the first such book in Europe to treat politics and ethics as being separate and not necessarily linked). Sculptor, Painter, etc. In Florence, see the original David (finished in January 1504) in mendelian lab report, the Galleria dell'Accademia (though there's not much else of consuming interest there and the copies outside the Palazzo Vecchio and in the Piazza Michelangelo are pretty good and much more accessible). We would rather spend time with the powerful Pieta in essay with statement, the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo (with the added bonus that the central figure is a Michelangelo self portrait and Donatello's Maddelina is nearby). Then, of course, there is Rome and a sublime Pieta in St Peters and . Giovanni de'Medici, second son of Lorenzo and younger brother of the fatuous Piero, became the first of the Medici Popes (Leo X - Leone Decimo) at the age of mendelian drosophila lab report 38 on 11 March 1513. Prior to this his life had been a complete roller coaster . LINK TO PAGE ON THE MEDICI POPES.

Painter, along with Luca Signorelli, of some 36 large frescoes on the life of San Benedict in in urdu, the Great Cloister of the Abbazia di Monte Oliveto Maggiore - the Abbey in the Clouds. Note the attractive young lads with tunic skirts slashed to the thigh! While at genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report, the Abbey, don’t miss the extraordinary marquetry work (circa 1505) by Fra Giovanni di Verona in the chapel's choir stalls. Brothers from an old rival Florentine banking family to the Medici, Francesco and Girolamo Pazzi, have a go (with the secret support of suny plattsburgh Pope Sixtus IV (della Rovere)) at killing Giuliano and (Magnificent) brother Lorenzo de Medici in the Florence Duomo, but the latter escapes with the help of drosophila Angelo Poliziano, and the Pazzi clan are systematically eliminated. Although the institution of The Inquisition had been around since 1231, it only became a byword for terror and indiscriminate torture in Spain in 1478, when Ferdinand and Isabella, with the support of expository essay thesis Sixtus IV , appointed Dominican priest Toms de Torquemada as Grand Inquisitor and he headed for drosophila lab report, the ranks of Jews and Muslims who had converted to Christianity, followed by assorted other supposed heretics followed by various other people and activities he did not like.

Torture followed by confession was the standard procedure, after which came punishment - including more than 2,000 burnings at the stake in Torquemada's time alone. The underlying dynamic of all this was fear of the Jews (and to a lesser extent Muslims), and in 1492 nearly 200,000 Jews had their assets confiscated and were expelled from Spain. The Inquisition in Spain and its colonies was only finally suppressed in 1834. (Pope Clemente Settimo) Second of the four Medici Popes . Handsome, well travelled, a sophisticated intellectual and an outstanding musician - none of which stopped him presenting more as an unattractive, devious intriguing Pope (from 1523) who scored home goals by losing Rome and also Henry VIII's England. In fact poping was not a Medici strength - the automatically grade corrupt manoeuvrings (especially the sale of indulgencies, facilitated by the new printing presses) of the first Medici Pope, Clement's cousin (and Il Magnifico's son) Leo X , triggered the birth of the Protestant movement - see below. Portugal then Spain. Portuguese courtier turned navigator who transferred his services to mendelian genetics melanogaster Spain. Traveling Overseas? In 1519 he set sail from Seville across the Atlantic with five ships and over mendelian genetics drosophila lab report, 270 men in search of the Spice Islands. They sailed past the interestingly named Cape of the Eleven Thousand Virgins and overseas essay, through what was to drosophila melanogaster become known as the Magellan Strait at the southerly tip of South America, crossed an ocean he named the Pacific because it was, and landed in the Philippines, where our man was killed in a scuffle with the natives. One ship and automatically essays, 18 men made it back to Spain in mendelian genetics lab report, 1522.

One of essay students those who returned was the Italian nobleman Antonio Pigafetta whose detailed day by day account of the entire voyage survived and is available as a book . Magellan is credited with circumnavigating the world because he had earlier (1501-12) made it to the Spice Islands via the mendelian genetics drosophila lab report Cape of frost analysis essay Good Hope. On 31 October 1517, married Augustinian monk Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-Five Theses to the door of the Castle Church in mendelian genetics lab report, Wittenberg - the launch of the essays Reformation and mendelian drosophila melanogaster lab report, the Protestant Movement which, facilitated by the recent inventions of printing and cheap paper, was to frost poem analysis sweep Northern Europe. Leading late renaissance painter - Painted The Mute Woman in Urbino Palace, (Medici) Pope Leo X in the Uffizi and mendelian genetics, much much more (especially La Stanza della Segnatura in essay in urdu, Rome which includes the famous School of Athens). Mendelian Genetics? Portraited alluringly by automatically grade essays Pinturicchio in one of the Piccolomini Library frescos in the Siena Duomo, and by himself in the School of Athens fresco and several self portraits . Prolific and long lived late renaissance painter from Venice. Outstanding with flesh textures (see for example the Venus of Urbino in the Uffizi). Much in demand for mendelian drosophila, court portraits such as those of essay in urdu Charles V and Suleiman the Magnificent . Greve in Chianti. Giovanni da Verrazzano (from Greve in Chianti where his statue stands in the Piazza) was the drosophila one who did the early hard yards in robert poem, the discovery of the mendelian drosophila East Coast of North America. Giovanni set out in 1524 with four ships, promoted by the French King Francis I, and paid for by Italian Bankers and Merchants from Lyons (Kings did not pay for things). Two of the essay statement ships sank early on and a third got no further than the mendelian drosophila lab report coast of Spain before having to return home as it was fully laden with booty taken from other less well armed travellers - an interesting commentary on the times! Our lad made it across the Atlantic in ship 4 and amongst other things discovered New York Harbour (hence the bridge there bearing his name - the longest suspension bridge in the World) and lots of different tribes of robert frost poem analysis native Americans.

He also erroneously identified a sea passing through the middle of the mendelian genetics continent to short essay on friendship China. He made two more expeditions before being captured and eaten by natives in Guadeloupe in 1528. Well that's the mendelian drosophila Italian culinary version of his end. Automatically Essays? Spanish records indicate that he was captured off the coast of Cadiz and executed on the orders of Charles V, who was probably still smarting about the loss of a treasure ship loaded with priceless loot sent to him from Mexico by Corts, and captured by Verrazzano in genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report, 1522. A timeline link with one of the better known English Kings - It was Medici Pope Clemente Settimo (see above) who refused to let Henry divorce Catherine of Aragon to marry Anne Boleyn - which led to the creation of the Church of automatically essays England in melanogaster, 1534, followed by the dissolution / looting of all England's monasteries and convents starting in 1536. As well as having a lot of Queens, Henry was a collector of suny admissions Thomases, including Cardinal Wolsey (c1470 - 1530 (60)) (Chancellor with 1,000 servants and mendelian genetics, a general liking for the luxuries of life), Cromwell (Vicar General and enforcer of the biggest redistribution of wealth in England since the Norman conquest of 1066), Moore (1478 - 1535 (57)) (Chancellor, executor of protestants, author of traveling overseas essay Utopia, executee and from 1935 (that's right it took 400 years) saint - in fact patron saint of genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report politicians), and Cranmer (the Archbishop who guided Henry and England through divorces and reformation, who wrote the still used Book of Common Prayer, and who ended up after all this being executed by Henry's daughter Queen Mary). Spanish soldier who converted to the religious life in 1521 after being wounded in essay on friendship, battle. Not content with this he went on to co-found (with another Basque, S Francis Xavier) the Jesuit Order (the Society of Jesus) in 1534. Lorenzo the Magnificent dies in Florence, Columbus discovers America (almost), and Granada (the last Moslem presence in Spain) falls, which is why 1492 is regarded by many as symbolically the last year of the Middle Ages!

Unrelated to these internationally seismic events, it was also the ye ar that Roderigo de Borgia became Pope Alessandro VI . Ottoman Sultan (from 1520) Another Magnifico, Suleiman the genetics drosophila lab report Magnificent , the tenth and greatest Ottoman Sultan. Builder of essay some students cheat great empire and buildings, giver of laws (and for that also remembered as Suleiman the Law Giver) and effective administrative systems, promoter of the melanogaster arts, writer of poems - particularly concerning his love for his chief wife Roxelena . Valois King who spent most of his long reign (1515-47) biffing and being biffed by Charles V in a series of short essay on friendship in urdu wars. When not thus engaged he practised absolute monarchy in the comparatively small area around Paris where he held sway. Leading mannerist painter.

Gathering groundswell in the early years of the mendelian drosophila century, given focus and unstoppable momentum by Martin Luther and essay thesis, his Ninety-Five Theses , backed by the spread of genetics printing presses following their introduction at Mainz in Germany in the mid fourteen hundreds, and by essays William Caxton in England in 1476. Holy Roman Emperor King (Charles I) of Spain other places. The most powerful Habsburg of them all (in theory). Charles V inherited and expanded the World's first trans oceanic global empire, encompassing the lands of the genetics drosophila Holy Roman Empire (Germany, Austria etc), the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Spain and substantial bits of North Africa and the Americas, and latterly much of expository with thesis Italy and Eastern Europe. Nothing like it had existed before or since.

His kingly reach was a triumph of the marriage engineering skills of his paternal grandfather, the great Habsburg Emperor Maximilian I , who passed on the Holy Roman Emperorship to him (with the help of a huge amount of bribe money organized by mega banker Jacob Fugger ) and indirectly bequeathed the Netherlands via his son and Charles' father, and the Spanish bits via his mother ( Joan , the daughter of Los Reyes Cathlicos, Ferdinand and Isabella , who lost it after the mendelian melanogaster lab report early death of her handsome Habsburg hubbie and got locked up). It is fascinating to appreciate that the Habsburgs then and later believed that they owned all this unconditionally by right, and were very pissed off with anyone who did not subscribe to this truth. However, such huge tracts of territory might have been governable by brute force in the era of Genghis Khan , but were not in the era of post Renaissance Europe and emerging Nation States. Charles was inevitably confronted by other strong monarchs - particularly Francis I of France and Suleiman the Magnificent , and to a lesser extent Henry VIII of short essay on friendship in urdu England (whose first wife, Catherine of Aragon, was Charles' Auntie). Genetics Drosophila Lab Report? And within his own lands there was an even bigger obstacle - Martin Luther - whom he met face to face at the Diet of Worms in 1522 and suny plattsburgh admissions essay, took an instant, deep and lasting dislike to. In the genetics melanogaster lab report end, in 1555 he gave the Spanish stuff to his son Philip II , and the rest to his brother who became the Emperor Ferdinand II (a single Habsburg was never again to rule both East and West in Europe), and spent the last three years of his life in the monastery of Yuste. Goldsmith and on why students cheat, Author. A seriously good goldsmith and sculptor, but remembered just as much for his Autobiography - a vivid and convincing portrait of the manners and morals both of the rulers of the sixteenth century and their subjects Architect, Painter Author. Another of your great Renaissance all-rounders.

Taught by mendelian genetics melanogaster Michaelangelo, it was he who rescued for safe keeping the broken off arm of the great sculptor's David, which had been toppled over in frost poem analysis, one of the frequent Florentine riots in the early decades of the 1500s. Giorgio became Cosimo I's architect of choice. He replaced the core of the Pal Vecchio (and also painted some of the big works in the Hall of 500), frescoed the inside of the Duomo cupola, was architect for the new civic offices (the Uffizi) and the revamped Palazzo Pitti (and the mendelian genetics Vasari Corridor connecting the last two, which allowed Cosimo I to short get to work without being assonated). Last but not least, he authored Lives of the Artists which is the source of much of today's received knowledge about the Artists of the Renaissance. First Grand Duke of Tuscany.

From the cadet branch of the family after the genetics lab report senior branch had failed, Cosimo I was plucked in 1537 from country obscurity by essay Emperor Charles V at the age of 18 to rule Florence in a compliant way. Cosimo I proved to be a very competent detailed administrator at a time when being a dull pompous control freak did not seem to matter. Mendelian Drosophila Lab Report? This was the Cinquecento - the swash buckling visionary Renaissance glory days of the Quattrocento were over - bit like a cold dose of economic rationalism today but with more support for the arts thrown in! During his 37 year rule he managed the growth of robert frost essay Florence into the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, finally defeating and absorbing the drosophila melanogaster Republic of Siena in 1557 and reducing the influence of the Emperor and overseas essay, of the French King Francis 1 ( link to Insight Page ) by playing them off against each other (though it was to be another 300 years before Italians finally got rid of foreign rulers). On the home building side he moved early in his reign to the Vasari renovated Palazzo Vecchio, and mendelian genetics lab report, then later to the Palazzo Pitti (bought by wife Eleanora of Toledo , wealthy daughter of the Spanish Ambassador to on why some the Kingdom of Naples, to mendelian drosophila lab report better house their ten children, though half died before twenty and Eleanora herself died of malaria, contracted whilst holidaying on the West Coast of Tuscany, in 1562 at the early age of 40). He then had Giorgio Vasari build a huge corridor (better described as a series of galleries) at first floor level across the frost analysis Ponte Vecchio / Arno and linking the genetics drosophila lab report Palazzo Pitti with the newly built Uffizi offices and the Palazzo Vecchio itself, so that he could walk to work in elevated safety. Today the essay galleries of the Vasari Corridor are used to display the lab report Uffizi's huge collection of artist self portraits, and can be visited by prior arrangement.

Organist of St Marks Venice from 1566. Automatically Grade Essays? Writer of madrigals and, most famously, grand music involving several choirs. Most important composer of church music in Italy in the latter fifteen hundreds (and a success story of the Counter Reformation). Simplicity, purity and sensuousness are three of the words used to describe the Palestrina sound - where music reflected and allowed the meaning of words to come through rather than obscuring them. The grizzly sack and destruction of Rome by a mercenary Landsknecht army of genetics drosophila lab report Hapsburg Spanish King and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Escape of suny disguised Medici Pope Clement VII (Clemente Settimo) to Orvieto where he had earlier ordered the building of the vast Pozzo di San Patrizio - a 62 m deep well accessed via double spiral stairways so that those going down never meet those coming up! Along with Tinoretto, took over from Titian the leadership of Venetian art. More into huge scale decorative paintings than intense emotional expressiveness. To get a flavour of what this means, go to Room 10 of the Accademia and spend half an hour with the Feast at the House of Levy - the Last Supper that brought Veronese before the Inquisition ( transcript ). Mendelian Lab Report? The Louvre and statement, London's National Gallery also have large Veronese masterpieces.

This time by the Prince of Orange on behalf of Charles V - even a total scorched earth strategy and Michelangelo's help designing the defences was of no avail, leading to the reestablishment of mendelian drosophila melanogaster Medici rule in the form of Clement VII's nephew (=illegitimate son) and eventually, after his murder by his cousin, in the elevation of Cosimo I in 1537. The Catholic Church at frost analysis essay, the long running Council of Trent (1545-63) decides that the Reformation needs to be rolled back (or stopped from further expansion anyway) - two of the European instruments used in this were the Jesuits (founded by S Ignatius Loyola in 1534) to teach, and an expanded Inquisition to root out and eliminate those who did not want to be taught! It was 1562 before the deliberations got round to mendelian drosophila melanogaster lab report music, resulting in automatically grade, the banning of masses based on popular songs (which most of them were) and other distractive music. Genetics Lab Report? Luckily Palestrina and Victoria were in Rome to on friendship in urdu take up the challenge of producing the new church music, and produced a transcendently beautiful style that was to retain its influence into the eighteenth century. Along with Palestrina , the great composer of the Counter Reformation - listen to CD recordings of his soaring masses by the Westminster Cathedral Choir. Nephew of drosophila melanogaster lab report Andrea and the greatest composer of the Venetian school. Court singer to the Medici who wrote the first known opera - La Dafne (since lost) in 1598, and later L'Euridice in 1600. Late scientific thinker of the Renaissance, early thinker of the Enlightenment. He was supported and encouraged by the Medici, who created the position of Court Professor especially for plattsburgh admissions, him. Amongst many other things he surprised the world by demonstrating that ice floated, and that canon balls of different weights dropped from the leaning edge of the Tower of Pisa hit the ground at the same time. The telescope (spy glass) had been invented around 1605 by a Dutch spectacle maker.

However it was Galileo who a couple of years later started to refine lens making so that the x3 magnification achievable with crude spectacle lenses became x30 in his telescopes. Mendelian Genetics Lab Report? Most importantly, Galileo turned his new telescope towards the planets and stars. Later he was famously brought before the inquisition for stating that the Earth revolved around the Sun, and essay, forced to recant and retire. See his and many other large and mendelian melanogaster lab report, beautifully made instruments in traveling, the fascinating Instituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, just behind the East wing of the Uffizi in Florence. Well known English playwright.

Breakout painter of people in dramatic lighting - go to Rome to view! 46 Ceilings in mendelian drosophila, the East Wing of the Uffizi painted by Antonio Tempesta and Alessandro Allori - after the style of thesis statement rooms decorated by Fabullus in the palace of Emperor Nero, discovered in Rome in the 1480s and then thought to be grottoes. The use of reason and logic to support social progress, and the exploitation of the mendelian genetics melanogaster lab report liberating possibilities of rational and scientific knowledge. Progress was facilitated by essay the intellectual concept of differentiating human oneness into three value spheres of morals, science and art (the good the genetics true and the beautiful) so that a (reason based) scientific theory (for instance) no longer needed the approval of the essay some students (belief based) church. For other Paradoxplace links visit the home page . © Adrian Fletcher 2000-2015 - The contents may not be hotlinked, or reproduced without permission.

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Drosophila Genetics: Applying Mendelian Principles through

Essay on Red Blood Cells (With Diagram) The differentiation of genetics melanogaster lab report, mammalian red blood cells in bone marrow (a process called erythropoiesis) is one of the most striking examples of specialization occur­ring in nature. In adults, erythropoies is begins with a pluripotent (i.e., multi-potent) stem cell that gives rise in 7 to 10 days to mature, hemoglobin-filled erythro­cytes. Differentiation and specialization of cells may be accompanied not only by essay in urdu the acquisition and development of specialized structures but also by the loss of internal structures or physiological properties. The latter is the case during erythrocyte differentiation, for mature red blood cells lack nuclei, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, ribosomes, and most other typical cell organelles. The mature erythrocyte is a relatively simple cell, delimited at its periphery by a plasma membrane and containing internally a highly concentrated, paracrystalline array of hemoglobin molecules used for oxy­gen transport. The apparent simplicity of the matur­ing erythrocyte is the principal reason for its selection over most other kinds of cells as the preferred object for studying plasma membrane structure and protein (e.g., hemoglobin) structure and biosynthesis. Mendelian Genetics Lab Report! These subjects, together with the contributions made by in­tensive study of the erythrocyte. The’ development and differentiation of the plattsburgh admissions, mam­malian red blood cell is depicted in Figure 24-7. Development takes place in the extra-sinusoidal stroma of the bone marrow and begins with pluripotent stem cells capable of genetics drosophila lab report, proliferating leukocytes (white blood cells) as well as erythrocytes.

When primitive stem cells undergo division, one of the daughter cells re­mains undifferentiated and pluripotent, so that deple­tion of robert poem analysis essay, marrow stem cells does not normally take place. The erythropoietic activity of the bone marrow is mendelian drosophila melanogaster under hormonal influence, increasing or decreasing according to the level of circulating erythropoietin (produced in the cortical region of the kidneys and se­creted into the bloodstream). The erythrocyte progen­itors show an increasing sensitivity to erythropoietin through the proerythroblast stage and a parallel, ever- decreasing proliferative potential (Fig. 24-8). As a result, by the proerythroblast stage, the cells are irreversibly committed to the maturation sequence leading to erythrocytes. The mRNAs for the various globin chains of hemo­globin appear and increase in suny admissions essay quantity in the pro­erythroblast and erythroblast stages, and mendelian genetics melanogaster lab report this is grade essays followed by the synthesis and accumulation of hemo­globin. By the late erythroblast and normoblast stages, the synthesis of hemoglobin accounts for more than 95% of all protein synthesis occurring in the cells. Hemoglobin synthesis is concluded in the reticu­locyte stage and is accompanied by mendelian genetics melanogaster the progressive dissolution of grade essays, internal cell structure (including the loss of the nucleus) and residual nucleic acids. Late reticu­locytes leave the melanogaster lab report, bone marrow and enter the circulat­ing blood, where in the ensuing hours they lose their granulation and are transformed into the biconcave disks typical of mature erythrocytes. Complete differ­entiation and maturation from stem cell to on friendship in urdu the eryth­rocyte takes from 7 to genetics 10 days. Because of its highly differentiated state, the ma­ture erythrocyte is incapable of further proliferation.

In humans, the average life span is plattsburgh 120 days. As there are 5 billion red blood cells in each cubic centimeter of blood, a few simple calculations quickly reveal that in a typical adult the differentiation and maturation of 3 million erythrocytes is completed each second! Obvi­ously, an appreciable proportion of the body’s energy and genetics drosophila melanogaster resources is continuously consumed to robert frost poem analysis essay support erythropoietic activity. This is in stark contrast with other highly differentiated cells such as those of mus­cle and nerve, whose proliferation ceases shortly after birth. Genetic and Molecular Basis of Erythrocyte Differentiation : Because of the intensity with which the red blood cell has been studied by mendelian drosophila biochemists, cell biologists, molec­ular geneticists, physiologists, and others, the differ­entiation and specialization of this cell are better understood in frost analysis essay molecular terms than any other; accordingly, erythrocyte differentiation may serve as a model for the genetic and molecular events that underlie cell differentiation generally.

Development in humans is accompanied by the sequential appearance of six different hemoglobin’s composed of various combina­tions of drosophila melanogaster lab report, seven different globin chains. The structural genes coding for these chains represent only essay a minus­cule fraction of the total genetic complement of the pluripotent progenitor cells. In humans, there are two pairs of alleles (i.e., four genes) for alpha globin chains, one pair for beta chains, two pairs for gamma chains, one pair for delta chains, one pair for mendelian genetics drosophila epsilon chains, and two pairs for zeta chains. These genes ac­count for less than 0.0002% of the total DNA content of the nucleus, and yet globin chain synthesis accounts for more than 95% of all protein synthesis taking place in essay the red cell by the later stages of maturation. Drosophila Lab Report! It is plattsburgh admissions essay clear that during differentiation, the progeny of the stem cells are committed to the highly selective ex­pression of only a small number of genes. The globin chain genes are distributed between two pairs of homologous chromosomes—alpha and zeta chain genes on one chromosome pair and beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon chain genes on the other pair. The zeta, epsilon, and gamma chain genes are expressed only mendelian genetics drosophila during embryonic and automatically grade essays fatal development, whereas the beta and delta chain genes are expressed from mid-fetal stages through adulthood. Alpha chain genes are expressed through­out life beginning at an early embryonic stage.

There­fore, superimposed on the highly selective expression of globin chain genes in maturing erythrocytes is the temporal expression of certain members of this family of genes during organismal development. Mendelian Drosophila Melanogaster Lab Report! Expression of these genes is also coordinated between the two dif­ferent chromosomes bearing the members of this gene family. A most interesting finding of recent years is that the order in which the globin chain genes are ar­ranged on their respective chromosomes parallels the order in which the various genes are expressed during embryonic and fetal development. Also present in the chromosome regions containing these genes are nucle­otide sequences encoding polypeptide chains that are very similar in primary structure to on friendship the globin chains, but that are never expressed. These “silent genes” or pseudogenes may be genetic vestiges of the evolu­tionary process. Certainly, the inclination to draw a parallel between phylogeny and ontogeny at the organismal and cellular levels is unavoidable.

Cellular DNA includes not only structural genes but also sequences vital to DNA organization within the genetics drosophila melanogaster, chromosomes and the coordination of expository with thesis, gene expression during differentiation. About 60% of all the nucleo­tide sequences in the DNA of stem cells belong to the “unique sequence” class in which only a few copies of each sequence are present. The structural genes for mendelian the globin chains belong to this class. Highly repeti­tive DNA accounts for about 10% and consists of short sequences repeated in tandem many thousands of times. Suny Plattsburgh Admissions! These regions are not transcribed and are believed to be located in condensed chromatin. The balance of the DNA-about 30%-is moderately repetitive (repeated up to several hundred times) and includes the genes for histones and the ribosomal RNAs. Some moderately repetitive DNA sequences are lo­cated adjacent to the structural genes for globin and other proteins and may be involved in the coordination of gene activity. For example, by binding to the mod­erately repetitive sequence, regulatory substances could “turn on” the transcription of physiologically related genes. In the case of the red blood cell, such a gene set would be represented by:

(1) The globin chain genes, (2) The genes for the heme synthetic enzymes, and. (3) The genes for the cell surface antigens (which serve as the mendelian genetics lab report, basis for blood typing). The genes of short essay, eukaryotic cells are associated with histones and other basic pro­teins to form chromatin, which is mendelian genetics drosophila lab report composed of repeat­ing nucleosome units. Euchromatin has the more open structure and is transcriptionally active, whereas the condensed heterochromatin is not transcribed. Exper­iments with developing erythrocytes indicate that the globin chain genes are included in admissions nucleosomes of con­densed chromatin during the early stages of genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report, differen­tiation and that these are converted to the open form just before globin mRNA synthesis begins. The tran­scription of globin DNA sequences by RNA poly­merase II that occurs when these genes are “turned on” can be traced to a modification of the robert poem analysis, associated histones and an interaction with non-histone proteins. A selective expression of globin mRNA genes occurs in erythroblasts, with the result that globin mRNA is produced in amounts 100 times greater than expected on mendelian drosophila, the basis of the proportion of robert poem essay, total template DNA represented by the globin genes. Globin chain synthe­sis parallels the mendelian genetics drosophila, appearance of globin mRNAs in erythroblasts. Although globin chain synthesis accounts for the overwhelming majority of overseas, all protein synthetic activ­ity in the maturing erythrocyte, a number of other structural genes are expressed (e.g., those for the en­zymes of glycolysis, enzymes for initiation, elonga­tion, and termination of globin chain assembly, en­zymes of the metabolic pathway for heme synthesis, enzymes and drosophila melanogaster structural proteins of the plasma mem­brane, and so on). Although all protein synthesis comes to overseas a halt during reticulocyte maturation, a red cell retains a limited metabolic capacity after release from the bone marrow.

For example, glycolytic activ­ity provides the ATP needed to mendelian drosophila lab report maintain the sodium and potassium pumps of the erythrocyte membrane and for other energy-requiring pro­cesses. What limited metabolism is retained by the mature cell serves to sustain it during its 120-day and 700-mile journey through the circulatory system. The progressively selective expression of expository essay thesis, genes in the maturing red blood cell is mendelian genetics drosophila melanogaster lab report accompanied by the loss of internal structure so that in the mature state the only remaining organelle is the short, plasma membrane it­self. Internally, the cell consists primarily of a highly concentrated (30% by mendelian genetics lab report weight) crystal like arrange­ment of hemoglobin molecules suited to short essay on friendship the cell’s prin­cipal function—oxygen transport. Morphological and genetics drosophila Physiological Specialization of Red Blood Cells : Little cell growth occurs during the essay, periods between the successive mitotic divisions of erythropoiesis. As a result, the mature erythrocyte is among the smallest cells of the body. In humans, the average red blood cell has a volume of only about 100 µm 3 . The natural shape of the cell is that of mendelian melanogaster lab report, a biconcave disk (Fig. 24-9), al­though the cell is automatically essays flexible and its shape is easily dis­torted when the cell passes through narrow capillar­ies. The factors that maintain this rather unusual cell shape have fascinated scientists for more than two centuries. Prior to the discovery of the existence of cytoskeletons, the prevailing hypothesis suggested that the biconcave shape resulted from the chemical na­ture, arrangement, and interaction of the protein and lipid molecules that comprised the plasma membrane. However, it is now apparent that the biconcave shape is due to the modest cytoskeleton lying just beneath the drosophila lab report, plasma membrane.

Internally, the erythrocyte contains a Para crystalline organiza­tion of hemoglobin molecules. Suny Plattsburgh! Erythrocytes of individuals with abnormal hemoglobin’s (hemoglobin’s con­taining one or more amino acid substitutions) often lack the normal biconcave shape. The most notorious example is the “sickle” or crescent shape of erythro­cytes in individuals with sickle-cell anemia. In this ge­netically determined disease, a single substitution oc­curs in the beta globin chains of the hemoglobin. Under conditions of oxygen deprivation or shortage, the hemoglobin molecules aggregate to form long fi­bers and these progressively group together into bun­dles. The bundles of hemoglobin molecules make the mendelian drosophila, cells less flexible and overseas eventually overcome the con­straints of the cytoskeleton, deforming the cells and causing their sickling. Oxygen enters and leaves the mendelian genetics, erythrocyte by diffu­sion and the biconcave shape facilitates oxygen flux by increasing the surface area-to-volume ratio of the cell.

Oxygen inside the cell forms a reversible combination with hemoglobin, binding to hemoglo­bin as the blood circulates through the capillary net­works of the lungs (where the net oxygen flux is di­rected into the erythrocyte) and being released as the blood circulates through oxygen-deficient tissues. The disk shape of the erythrocyte induces the formation of rouleaux or long stacks of essay, cells, with the result that far greater numbers of drosophila, cells can pass through the analysis essay, nar­row capillaries when arranged in such a regimented manner than when the cells are freely and indepen­dently suspended. Experimental elimination of the bi­concave shape using hypotonic solutions eliminates the capability of erythrocytes to form rouleaux. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to genetics lab report share notes in Biology.

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